# Difference between revisions of "Well-posed problem"

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− | The problem of determining a solution | + | The problem of determining a solution $z=R(u)$ in a metric space $Z$ (with distance $\rho_Z({\cdot},{\cdot})$) from initial data $u$ in a metric space $U$ (with distance $\rho_U({\cdot},{\cdot})$), satisfying the following conditions: a) for any $u \in U$ there exists a solution $z \in Z$; b) the solution is uniquely defined; c) the problem is stable with respect to the spaces $(Z,U)$: For any $\epsilon>0$ there exists a $\delta(\epsilon)>0$ such that, for any $u_1,u_2 \in U$, the inequality $\rho_U(u_1,u_2) < \delta(\epsilon)$ implies $\rho_Z(z_1,z_2) < \epsilon$, where $z_1 = R(u_1)$, $z_2 = R(u_2)$. |

− | Problems not satisfying one of these conditions for well-posedness are called [[ | + | Problems not satisfying one of these conditions for well-posedness are called [[ill-posed problems]]. |

====Comments==== | ====Comments==== | ||

− | The term "well-posed" (also properly posed or correctly set) was coined by the French mathematician J. Hadamard at the beginning of the 19th century [[#References|[a1]]]. In particular, he stressed the importance of continuous dependence of solutions on the data (i.e. property 3). Practical problems (e.g. in hydrodynamics, seismology) lead not seldom to formulations that are ill-posed (cf. [[ | + | The term "well-posed" (also properly posed or correctly set) was coined by the French mathematician J. Hadamard at the beginning of the 19th century [[#References|[a1]]]. In particular, he stressed the importance of continuous dependence of solutions on the data (i.e. property 3). Practical problems (e.g. in hydrodynamics, seismology) lead not seldom to formulations that are ill-posed (cf. [[Ill-posed problems]]). |

====References==== | ====References==== | ||

− | <table><TR><TD valign="top">[a1]</TD> <TD valign="top"> J. Hadamard, "Lectures on Cauchy's problem in linear partial differential equations" , Dover, reprint (1952) (Translated from French)</TD></TR><TR><TD valign="top">[a2]</TD> <TD valign="top"> P.R. Garabedian, "Partial differential equations" , Wiley (1964)</TD></TR></table> | + | <table> |

+ | <TR><TD valign="top">[a1]</TD> <TD valign="top"> J. Hadamard, "Lectures on Cauchy's problem in linear partial differential equations" , Dover, reprint (1952) (Translated from French) {{ZBL|0049.34805}}</TD></TR> | ||

+ | <TR><TD valign="top">[a2]</TD> <TD valign="top"> P.R. Garabedian, "Partial differential equations" , Wiley (1964) {{ZBL|0124.30501}}</TD></TR> | ||

+ | </table> | ||

+ | |||

+ | {{TEX|done}} |

## Latest revision as of 17:55, 2 March 2018

The problem of determining a solution $z=R(u)$ in a metric space $Z$ (with distance $\rho_Z({\cdot},{\cdot})$) from initial data $u$ in a metric space $U$ (with distance $\rho_U({\cdot},{\cdot})$), satisfying the following conditions: a) for any $u \in U$ there exists a solution $z \in Z$; b) the solution is uniquely defined; c) the problem is stable with respect to the spaces $(Z,U)$: For any $\epsilon>0$ there exists a $\delta(\epsilon)>0$ such that, for any $u_1,u_2 \in U$, the inequality $\rho_U(u_1,u_2) < \delta(\epsilon)$ implies $\rho_Z(z_1,z_2) < \epsilon$, where $z_1 = R(u_1)$, $z_2 = R(u_2)$.

Problems not satisfying one of these conditions for well-posedness are called ill-posed problems.

#### Comments

The term "well-posed" (also properly posed or correctly set) was coined by the French mathematician J. Hadamard at the beginning of the 19th century [a1]. In particular, he stressed the importance of continuous dependence of solutions on the data (i.e. property 3). Practical problems (e.g. in hydrodynamics, seismology) lead not seldom to formulations that are ill-posed (cf. Ill-posed problems).

#### References

[a1] | J. Hadamard, "Lectures on Cauchy's problem in linear partial differential equations" , Dover, reprint (1952) (Translated from French) Zbl 0049.34805 |

[a2] | P.R. Garabedian, "Partial differential equations" , Wiley (1964) Zbl 0124.30501 |

**How to Cite This Entry:**

Well-posed problem.

*Encyclopedia of Mathematics.*URL: http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Well-posed_problem&oldid=14592