# Difference between revisions of "User:Richard Pinch/sandbox-9"

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====References==== | ====References==== | ||

<table> | <table> | ||

− | <TR><TD valign="top">[a1]</TD> <TD valign="top"> H.S.M. Coxeter, "Regular complex polytopes" , Cambridge Univ. Press (1991) pp. 76 {{ZBL|0732.51002}}</TD></TR> | + | <TR><TD valign="top">[a1]</TD> <TD valign="top"> H.S.M. Coxeter, "Regular complex polytopes" , Cambridge Univ. Press (1991) pp. 76 ISBN 0-521-20125-X {{ZBL|0732.51002}}</TD></TR> |

+ | </table> | ||

+ | |||

+ | =Binary icosahedral group= | ||

+ | The group $\langle 5,3,2 \rangle$ abstractly presented as: | ||

+ | $$ | ||

+ | \langle A,B \ |\ A^5=B^3=(AB)^2 \rangle \ . | ||

+ | $$ | ||

+ | It is finite of order 120. | ||

+ | |||

+ | The group has an action on the three-sphere with [[dodecahedral space]] as quotient. | ||

+ | |||

+ | ====References==== | ||

+ | <table> | ||

+ | <TR><TD valign="top">[a1]</TD> <TD valign="top"> H.S.M. Coxeter, "Regular complex polytopes" , Cambridge Univ. Press (1991) pp. 77 ISBN 0-521-20125-X {{ZBL|0732.51002}}</TD></TR> | ||

</table> | </table> | ||

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====References==== | ====References==== | ||

<table> | <table> | ||

− | <TR><TD valign="top">[a1]</TD> <TD valign="top"> H.S.M. Coxeter, "Regular complex polytopes" , Cambridge Univ. Press (1991) pp. 77 {{ZBL|0732.51002}}</TD></TR> | + | <TR><TD valign="top">[a1]</TD> <TD valign="top"> H.S.M. Coxeter, "Regular complex polytopes" , Cambridge Univ. Press (1991) pp. 77 ISBN 0-521-20125-X {{ZBL|0732.51002}}</TD></TR> |

</table> | </table> | ||

+ | |||

+ | =Dodecahedral space= | ||

+ | The result of identifying opposite faces of a [[dodecahedron]] by a right-handed turn of angle $\pi/5$. It is the quotient of the three-sphere by the [[binary icosahedral group]]. | ||

+ | |||

+ | Dodecahedral space is a homology sphere (Poincaré sphere). | ||

+ | |||

+ | ====References==== | ||

+ | * José Maria Montesinos, "Classical tessellations and three-manifolds" Springer (1987) ISBN 3-540-15291-1 {{ZBL|0626.57002}} | ||

+ | |||

=Étale algebra= | =Étale algebra= |

## Revision as of 23:25, 4 December 2017

## Contents

# Core-compact space

Let $X$ be a topological space with $\mathfrak{O}_X$ the collection of open sets. If $U, V$ are open, we say that $U$ is compact in $V$ if every open cover of $V$ has a finite subset that covers $U$. The space $X$ is core compact if for any $x \in X$ and open neighbourhood $N$ of $x$, there is an open set $V$ such that $N$ is compact in $V$.

A space is core compact if and only if $\mathfrak{O}_X$ is a continuous lattice. A locally compact space is core compact, and a sober space (and hence in particular a Hausdorff space) is core compact if and only if it is locally compact.

A space is core compact if and only if the product of the identity with a quotient map is quotient.

# Developable space

A **development** in a topological space $X$ is a sequence of open covers $G_n$ such that for all points $x \in X$ the stars
$$
\mathrm{St}(x,G_n) = \cup \{ U \in G_n : x \in U \}
$$
form a local base for $x$. A **developable space** is a space with a development. A metric space is a developable space: the sequence of collections of open balls of radius $1/n$ forming a development. A **Moore space** is a regular space with a development. A collection-wise normal Moore space is metrizable.

A **regular development** has the further property that if $U,V \in G_{n+1}$ with $U \cap V \neq \emptyset$, then there is $W \in G_n$ with $U \cup V \subset W$. Alexandroff and Urysohn proved that a space is metrizable if and only if it has a regular development.

#### References

- Alexandroff, P.; Urysohn, P. "Une condition nécessaire et suffisante pour qu’une classe $(\mathcal{L})$ doit une classe $(\mathcal{B})$",
*Comptes Rendus***177**(1923) 1274-1276. [1] Zbl 49.0702.06 Zbl 50.0696.01 - Bing, R.H. "Metrization of topological spaces",
*Canad. J. Math.***3**(1951) 175-186 DOI 10.4153/CJM-1951-022-3 Zbl 0042.41301

# Approach space

A generalisation of the concept of metric space, formalising the notion of the distance from a point to a set. An approach space is a set $X$ together with a function $d$ on $X \times \mathcal{P}X$, where $\mathcal{P}X$ is the power set of $X$, talking values in the extended positive reals $[0,\infty]$, and satisfying $$ d(x,\{x\}) = 0 \ ; $$ $$ d(x,\emptyset) = \infty \ ; $$ $$ d(x,A\cup B) = \min(d(x,A),d(x,B)) \ ; $$ $$ d(x,A) \le d(x,A^u) + u \ ; $$ where for $u \in [0,\infty]$, we write $A^u = \{x \in X : d(x,A) \le u \}$.

A metric space $(X,\delta)$ has an approach structure via $$ d(x,A) = \inf\{ \delta(x,a) : a \in A \} \ . $$ and a topological space $X,{}^c$, where ${}^c$ is the Kuratowksi closure operator, via $$ d(x,A) = \begin{cases} 0 & \ \text{if} x \in A^c \\ \infty & \ \text{otherwise} \end{cases} \ . $$

#### References

- Hofmann, Dirk (ed.); Seal, Gavin J. (ed.); Tholen, Walter (ed.) "Monoidal topology. A categorical approach to order, metric, and topology" Cambridge University Press (2014) ISBN 978-1-107-06394-5 Zbl 1297.18001

# Ample field

A field which is existentially closed in its field of formal power series. Examples include pseudo algebraically closed fields, real closed fields and Henselian fields.

A field $K$ is ample if and only if every absolutely irreducible curve over $K$ with a simple $K$-point has infinitely many $K$-points.

#### References

- Moshe Jarden, "Algebraic patching", Springer (2011) ISBN 978-3-642-15127-9 Zbl 1235.12002

# Binary tetrahedral group

The exceptional group $G_4$ or $\langle 3,3,2 \rangle$, abstractly presented as: $$ \langle R,S \ |\ R^3=S^3=(RS)^2 \rangle \ . $$ It is finite of order 24. It has the alternating group $A_4$ as quotient by the centre and the quaternion group of order 8 as a quotient.

This group may be realised as the group of invertible Hurwitz numbers: $$ \pm 1\,,\ \pm i\,,\ \pm j\,,\ \pm k\,,\ \frac{\pm1\pm i\pm j\pm k}{2} \ . $$

The group has an action on the three-sphere with tetrahedral space as quotient.

#### References

[a1] | H.S.M. Coxeter, "Regular complex polytopes" , Cambridge Univ. Press (1991) pp. 76 ISBN 0-521-20125-X Zbl 0732.51002 |

# Binary icosahedral group

The group $\langle 5,3,2 \rangle$ abstractly presented as: $$ \langle A,B \ |\ A^5=B^3=(AB)^2 \rangle \ . $$ It is finite of order 120.

The group has an action on the three-sphere with dodecahedral space as quotient.

#### References

[a1] | H.S.M. Coxeter, "Regular complex polytopes" , Cambridge Univ. Press (1991) pp. 77 ISBN 0-521-20125-X Zbl 0732.51002 |

# Binary octahedral group

The group $\langle 4,3,2 \rangle$ abstractly presented as: $$ \langle A,B \ |\ A^4=B^3=(AB)^2 \rangle \ . $$ It is finite of order 48. It has the binary tetrahedral group $G_4 = \langle 3,3,2 \rangle$ as a subgroup of index 2.

The group has an action on the three-sphere with octahedral space as quotient.

#### References

[a1] | H.S.M. Coxeter, "Regular complex polytopes" , Cambridge Univ. Press (1991) pp. 77 ISBN 0-521-20125-X Zbl 0732.51002 |

# Dodecahedral space

The result of identifying opposite faces of a dodecahedron by a right-handed turn of angle $\pi/5$. It is the quotient of the three-sphere by the binary icosahedral group.

Dodecahedral space is a homology sphere (Poincaré sphere).

#### References

- José Maria Montesinos, "Classical tessellations and three-manifolds" Springer (1987) ISBN 3-540-15291-1 Zbl 0626.57002

# Étale algebra

A commutative algebra $A$ finite-dimensional over a field $K$ for which the bilinear form induced by the trace $$ \langle x,y \rangle = \mathrm{tr}_{A/K} (x\cdot y) $$ is non-singular. Equivalently, an algebra which is isomorphic to a product of field $A \sim K_1 \times \cdots \times K_r$ with each $K_i$ an extension of $K$.

Since $\langle xy,z \rangle = \mathrm{tr}(xyz) = \langle x,yz \rangle$, an étale algebra is a Frobenius algebra over $K$.

#### References

- Tsit-Yuen Lam, "Lectures on Modules and Rings" Graduate Texts in Mathematics
**189**Springer (2012) ISBN 1461205255 Zbl 0911.16001

# Unit quaternion

A quaternion with norm 1, that is, $x_i + yj + zk + t$ with $x^2+y^2+z^2+t^2 = 1$.

The real unit quaternions form a group isomorphic to the special unitary group $\mathrm{SU}_2$ over the complex numbers, and to the spin group $\mathrm{Sp}_3$. They double cover the rotation group $\mathrm{SO}_3$ with kernel $\pm 1$.

The finite subgroups of the unit quaternions are given by group presentations $$ A^p = B^q = (AB)^2 $$ with $1/p + 1/q > 1/2$, denoted $\langle p,q,2 \rangle$. They are

- the cyclic groups $C_n$, , corresponding to $\langle n,n,1 \rangle$;
- the dicyclic groups, corresponding to $\langle n,2,2 \rangle$;
- the binary tetrahedral group $\langle 3,3,2 \rangle$;
- the binary octahedral group $\langle 4,3,2 \rangle$;
- the binary icosahedral group $\langle 5,3,2 \rangle$.

#### References

[a1] | H.S.M. Coxeter, "Regular complex polytopes" , Cambridge Univ. Press (1991) Zbl 0732.51002 |

# Dicyclic group

A finite group of order $4n$, obtained as the extensions of the cyclic group of order $2$ by a cyclic group of order $2n$. It has the presentation $\langle n,2,2 \rangle$ and group presentation $$ A^n = B^2 = (AB)^2 \ . $$ It may be realised as a subgroup of the unit quaternions.

The dicyclic group $n=2$ is the quaternion group of order $8$.

#### References

[a1] | H.S.M. Coxeter, "Regular complex polytopes" , Cambridge Univ. Press (1991) Zbl 0732.51002 |

**How to Cite This Entry:**

Richard Pinch/sandbox-9.

*Encyclopedia of Mathematics.*URL: http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Richard_Pinch/sandbox-9&oldid=42410