# Difference between revisions of "Hyperbolic functions"

The functions given by the formulas: \begin{equation} \sinh x = \frac{e^x-e^{-x}}{2}, \end{equation} the hyperbolic sine; and \begin{equation} \cosh x = \frac{e^x+e^{-x}}{2}, \end{equation} the hyperbolic cosine. The hyperbolic tangent \begin{equation} \tanh x = \frac{\sinh x}{\cosh x}, \end{equation} is also sometimes considered. Other notations include: $\operatorname{sh} x$, $\operatorname{Sh} x$, $\operatorname{ch} x$, $\operatorname{Ch} x$, $\operatorname{tgh} x$, $\operatorname{th} x$, $\operatorname{Th} x$. The graphs of these functions are shown in Fig. a. Figure: h048250a

The principal relations are:       Figure: h048250b

The geometrical interpretation of hyperbolic functions is similar to that of the trigonometric functions (Fig. b). The parametric equations of hyperbolas make it possible to interpret the abscissa and the ordinate of a point on the equilateral hyperbola as the hyperbolic sine and cosine; the hyperbolic tangent is the segment . The parameter of the point equals twice the area of the sector , where is the arc of the hyperbola. The parameter is negative for a point (for ).

The inverse hyperbolic functions are defined by the formulas   The derivatives and basic integrals of the hyperbolic functions are:      The hyperbolic functions and may also be defined by the series  in the entire complex -plane, so that (3)

Extensive tabulated values of hyperbolic functions are available. The values of the hyperbolic functions may also be obtained from tables giving and .