# Difference between revisions of "Alternating series"

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+ | An alternating series is an infinite series whose terms are alternately positive and negative: | ||

+ | $$ | ||

+ | u_1 - u_2 + \cdots + (-1)^{n-1}u_n + \cdots, \quad u_k > 0. | ||

+ | $$ | ||

+ | If the terms of an alternating series are monotone decreasing $(u_{n+1} < u_n)$ and tend to zero ($\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty} u_n = 0$), then the series is convergent (Leibniz' theorem). The remainder term of an alternating series, | ||

+ | $$ | ||

+ | r_n = (-1)^{n-1}u_n +\cdots, | ||

+ | $$ | ||

has the same sign as its first term and is less then the latter in absolute value. The simplest examples of alternating series are | has the same sign as its first term and is less then the latter in absolute value. The simplest examples of alternating series are | ||

− | + | $$ | |

− | + | 1 - | |

− | + | \frac{1}{2} + | |

− | + | \frac{1}{3} - | |

− | + | \frac{1}{4} + \cdots + | |

− | The sum of the first of these series is | + | (-1)^{n-1} \frac{1}{n} + \cdots |

+ | $$ | ||

+ | and | ||

+ | $$ | ||

+ | 1 - | ||

+ | \frac{1}{3} + | ||

+ | \frac{1}{5} - | ||

+ | \frac{1}{7} + \cdots + | ||

+ | (-1)^{n-1} \frac{1}{2n-1} + \cdots. | ||

+ | $$ | ||

+ | The sum of the first of these series is $\log 2$; that of the second is $\pi/4$. |

## Latest revision as of 19:34, 4 May 2012

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: *Primary:* 40A05 [MSN][ZBL]

An alternating series is an infinite series whose terms are alternately positive and negative: $$ u_1 - u_2 + \cdots + (-1)^{n-1}u_n + \cdots, \quad u_k > 0. $$ If the terms of an alternating series are monotone decreasing $(u_{n+1} < u_n)$ and tend to zero ($\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty} u_n = 0$), then the series is convergent (Leibniz' theorem). The remainder term of an alternating series, $$ r_n = (-1)^{n-1}u_n +\cdots, $$ has the same sign as its first term and is less then the latter in absolute value. The simplest examples of alternating series are $$ 1 - \frac{1}{2} + \frac{1}{3} - \frac{1}{4} + \cdots + (-1)^{n-1} \frac{1}{n} + \cdots $$ and $$ 1 - \frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{5} - \frac{1}{7} + \cdots + (-1)^{n-1} \frac{1}{2n-1} + \cdots. $$ The sum of the first of these series is $\log 2$; that of the second is $\pi/4$.

**How to Cite This Entry:**

Alternating series.

*Encyclopedia of Mathematics.*URL: http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Alternating_series&oldid=25988