# Sturm theorem

If

(*) |

is a Sturm series on the interval , , and is the number of variations of sign in the series (*) at a point (vanishing terms are not taken into consideration), then the number of distinct roots of the function on the interval is equal to the difference .

A Sturm series (or Sturm sequence) is a sequence of real-valued continuous functions (*) on having a finite number of roots on this interval, and such that

1) ;

2) on ;

3) from for some and given in it follows that ;

4) from for a given it follows that for sufficiently small ,

This theorem was proved by J.Ch. Sturm [1], who also proposed the following method of constructing a Sturm series for a polynomial with real coefficients and without multiple roots: , , and, if the polynomials are already constructed, then as one should take minus the remainder occurring in the process of dividing by . Here, will be a non-zero constant.

#### References

[1] | J.Ch. Sturm, Bull. de Férussac , 11 (1829) |

[2] | A.G. Kurosh, "Higher algebra" , MIR (1972) (Translated from Russian) |

#### Comments

The coefficients of the polynomials in the Sturm series must belong to a real-closed field. The algorithm to determine a Sturm series for a polynomial can be described as follows:

so is a non-zero constant.

#### References

[a1] | N. Jacobson, "Basic algebra" , I , Freeman (1974) |

[a2] | L.E.J. Dickson, "New first course in the theory of equations" , Wiley (1939) |

[a3] | B.L. van der Waerden, "Algebra" , 1 , Springer (1967) (Translated from German) |

**How to Cite This Entry:**

Sturm theorem. I.V. Proskuryakov (originator),

*Encyclopedia of Mathematics.*URL: http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Sturm_theorem&oldid=17606