# Rouché theorem

Let $f(z)$ and $g(z)$ be regular analytic functions (cf. Analytic function) of a complex variable $z$ in a domain $D$, let a simple closed piecewise-smooth curve $\Gamma$ together with the domain $G$ bounded by it belong to $D$ and let everywhere on $\Gamma$ the inequality $|f(z)|>|g(z)|$ be valid; then in the domain $G$ the sum $f(z)+g(z)$ has the same number of zeros as $f(z)$.

This theorem was obtained by E. Rouché [1]. It is a corollary of the principle of the argument (cf. Argument, principle of the) and it implies the fundamental theorem of algebra for polynomials.

A generalization of Rouché's theorem for multi-dimensional holomorphic mappings is also valid, for example, in the following form. Let $f(z)=(f_1(z),\ldots,f_n(z))$ and $g(z)=(g_1(z),\ldots,g_n(z))$ be holomorphic mappings (cf. Analytic mapping) of a domain $D$ of the complex space $\mathbf C^n$ into $\mathbf C^n$, $n\geq1$, with isolated zeros, let a smooth surface $\Gamma$ homeomorphic to the sphere belong to $D$ together with the domain $G$ bounded by it and let the following inequality hold on $\Gamma$:

$$|f(z)|=\sqrt{|f_1(z)|^2+\ldots+|f_n(z)|^2}>|g(z)|.$$

Then the mapping $f(z)+g(z)$ has in $G$ the same number of zeros as $f(z)$.

#### References

[1] | E. Rouché, J. Ecole Polytechn. , 21 (1858) |

[2] | A.I. Markushevich, "Theory of functions of a complex variable" , 1 , Chelsea (1977) (Translated from Russian) |

[3] | B.V. Shabat, "Introduction of complex analysis" , 1–2 , Moscow (1976) (In Russian) |

#### Comments

There is a symmetric form of Rouché's theorem, which says that if $f(z)$ and $g(z)$ are analytic and satisfy the inequality $|f(z)+g(z)|<|f(z)|+|g(z)|$ on $\Gamma$, then $f(z)$ and $g(z)$ have the same number of zeros inside $\Gamma$. See [a2]–[a3] for generalizations of Rouché's theorem in one variable; see [a1] for the case of several variables.

#### References

[a1] | L.A. Aizenberg, A.P. Yuzhakov, "Integral representations and residues in multidimensional complex analysis" , Transl. Math. Monogr. , 58 , Amer. Math. Soc. (1983) (Translated from Russian) |

[a2] | R.B. Burchel, "An introduction to classical complex analysis" , 1 , Acad. Press (1979) |

[a3] | J.B. Conway, "Functions of one complex variable" , Springer (1978) |

**How to Cite This Entry:**

Rouché theorem.

*Encyclopedia of Mathematics.*URL: http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Rouch%C3%A9_theorem&oldid=32579