# Horner scheme

A method for obtaining the incomplete fraction and the remainder in the division of a polynomial

 (1)

by a binomial , where all the coefficients lie in a certain field, e.g. in the field of complex numbers. Any polynomial can be uniquely represented in the form

where is the incomplete fraction, while is the remainder which, according to the Bezout theorem, equals . The coefficients of and are calculated by the recurrence formulas

 (2)
The following table:'
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whose upper line is given, while the lower line is filled in accordance with the formulas (2), is used in the computations. In fact, this method is identical with the method of Ch'in Chiu-Shao employed in medieval China. At the beginning of the 19th century it was rediscovered, almost simultaneously, by W.G. Horner [1] and P. Ruffini [1].

#### References

 [1] W.G. Horner, Philos. Transact. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A , 1 (1819) pp. 308–335 [2] P. Ruffini, Mem. Coronata Soc. Ital. Sci. , 9 (1802) pp. 44–526