If is an irrational algebraic number and is arbitrarily small, then there are only finitely many integer solutions and ( and being co-prime) of the inequality
This theorem is best possible of its kind; the number 2 in the exponent cannot be decreased. The Thue–Siegel–Roth theorem is a strengthening of the Liouville theorem (see Liouville number). Liouville's result has been successively strengthened by A. Thue , C.L. Siegel  and, finally, K.F. Roth . Thue proved that if is an algebraic number of degree , then the inequality
has only finitely many integer solutions and ( and being co-prime) when . Siegel established that Thue's theorem is true for . The final version of the theorem stated above was obtained by Roth. There is a -adic analogue of the Thue–Siegel–Roth theorem. The results listed above are proved by non-effective methods (see Diophantine approximation, problems of effective).
|||A. Thue, "Bemerkungen über gewisse Annäherungsbrüche algebraischer Zahlen" Norske Vidensk. Selsk. Skrifter. , 3 (1908) pp. 1–34|
|||C.L. Siegel, "Approximation algebraischer Zahlen" Math. Z. , 10 (1921) pp. 173–213|
|||K.F. Roth, "Rational approximation to algebraic numbers" Mathematika , 2 : 1 (1955) pp. 1–20|
|||K. Mahler, "Lectures on Diophantine approximations" , 1 , Univ. Notre Dame (1961)|
|||D. Ridout, "The -adic generalization of the Thue–Siegel–Roth theorem" Mathematika , 5 (1958) pp. 40–48|
|||A.O. Gel'fond, "Transcendental and algebraic numbers" , Dover, reprint (1960) (Translated from Russian)|
In 1971, W.M. Schmidt [a1] generalized Roth's theorem to the problem of simultaneous approximation of several algebraic numbers. This was extended by H.P. Schlickewei [a2] to include -adic valuations as well. The latter work has profound consequences in the theory of exponential Diophantine equations (-unit equations), see [a3].
In a completely different but spectacular direction, G. Faltings [a4] extended Roth's theorem to products of Abelian varieties and proved a remarkable conjecture of S. Lang on rational points on subvarieties of Abelian varieties. This proof can also be considered as a generalization of Vojta's proof of the Mordell conjecture (see also Thue–Siegel–Roth theorem).
|[a1]||W.M. Schmidt, "Diophantine Approximation" , Lect. notes in math. , 785 , Springer (1980)|
|[a2]||H.P. Schlickewei, "The -adic Thue–Siegel–Roth–Schmidt theorem" Arch. Math. , 29 (1977) pp. 267–270|
|[a3]||J.H. Evertse, "On sums of -units and linear recurrences" Compos. Math. , 53 (1984) pp. 225–244|
|[a4]||G. Faltings, "Diophantine approximation on abelian varieties" Ann. of Math. (Forthcoming)|
Thue-Siegel-Roth theorem. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Thue-Siegel-Roth_theorem&oldid=23085