# Probability graph paper

*normal*

A specially scaled graph paper which is so constructed that the graph of the normal distribution function is represented on it by a straight line. This is achieved by varying the scale of the vertical axis (see Fig.). This "rectification" property is the principle of verification whether or not a given sample is drawn from a normal distribution: If the empirical distribution function, plotted on probability graph paper, approximates a straight line, it may be reliably concluded that the population out of which the sample has been chosen has approximately a normal distribution. The advantage of this method consists in the fact that normality of a distribution may be deduced from a sample without knowledge of the parameters of the hypothetical distribution. The straight line represents the normal distribution function with average 100 and standard deviation 8.

Figure: p074910a

#### References

[1] | N. Arley, K.R. Buch, "Introduction to the theory of probability and statistics" , Wiley (1950) |

[2] | W.J. Dixon, F.J. Massey, "Introduction to statistical analysis" , McGraw-Hill (1957) |

**How to Cite This Entry:**

Probability graph paper. A.V. Prokhorov (originator),

*Encyclopedia of Mathematics.*URL: http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Probability_graph_paper&oldid=11790