Given , , and ; then for any there exist integers , , and , , such that
if and only if for any such that
is also an integer. This theorem was first proved in 1884 by L. Kronecker (see ).
Kronecker's theorem is a special case of the following theorem , which describes the closure of the subgroup of the torus generated by the elements , : The closure is precisely the set of all classes such that, for any numbers with
one has also
(Cf. .) Under the assumptions of Kronecker's theorem, this closure is simply . This means that the subgroup of all elements of the form
where , is dense in , while the subgroup of vectors
In the case , Kronecker's theorem becomes the following proposition: A class , where , generates as a topological group if and only if the numbers are linearly independent over the field of rational numbers. In particular, the torus as a topological group is monothetic, i.e. is generated by a single element.
|||L. Kronecker, "Näherungsweise ganzzahlige Auflösung linearer Gleichungen" , Werke , 3 , Chelsea, reprint (1968) pp. 47–109|
|||N. Bourbaki, "Elements of mathematics. General topology" , Addison-Wesley (1966) (Translated from French)|
|||L.S. Pontryagin, "Topological groups" , Princeton Univ. Press (1958) (Translated from Russian)|
The last statement above can be rephrased as: If are linearly independent over , then the set is dense in . Here denotes the fractional part of (cf. Fractional part of a number). In fact, the set is even uniformly distributed, cf. Uniform distribution.
|[a1]||G.H. Hardy, E.M. Wright, "An introduction to the theory of numbers" , Oxford Univ. Press (1979) pp. Chapt. 23|
|[a2]||J.W.S. Cassels, "An introduction to diophantine approximation" , Cambridge Univ. Press (1957)|
Kronecker theorem. A.L. Onishchik (originator), Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Kronecker_theorem&oldid=19181